SYMPTOMS OF DEHYDRATION
Headaches and cramping are common signs of dehydration, as well as tiredness, irritation, discomfort, and hypotension among other symptoms. However, these are late signs. Unfortunately, the body hides mild dehydration very well, and it can take hours before you recognize that you are dehydrated.
TYPES OF DEHYDRATION
Dehydration is a condition that results when the body loses more water than it takes in. The imbalance disrupts the usual level of salts (serum sodium levels, commonly known as electrolytes) and sugars present in the blood.
Type of Dehydration
Based on Sodium level as per mEq/liter
When proportionally the same amount of water and sodium is lost from the body and the dehydration does not affect the concentration of sodium in the extracellular fluid, it is called isotonic or iso-osmolar dehydration. Statistically, in most cases (~ 80%) dehydration is of the isotonic type.
When dehydration results in a decreased sodium concentration of the extracellular fluids, it is called hypotonic dehydration—a condition in which the body loses a significant quantity of electrolytes along with the excreted fluids.
When dehydration results in an increased sodium concentration of the extracellular fluid, it is called hypertonic dehydration. Hypernatremia, is defined as a serum sodium level greater than 145 mEq/L (145 mmol/L) and represents a deficit of water in relation to total body sodium. It can cause cerebral edema because of a rapid decline in the serum sodium concentration. Thus, dehydration should be corrected over 48-72 hours.